Dr Victor Lopez Anderson Cooper

Anderson Cooper stepped out on longtime lover with a hunky Texas doctor and now RadarOnline.com can reveal exclusive details behind the silver-haired host's mystery man! It’s not known if their change in status has anything to do with Cooper being spotted in the company of Dr. Victor Lopez, 33, in Dallas, Texas, multiple times. Lopez is with Cooper in the bottom photo. Maisani and Cooper still remain under one roof and were seen this week leaving their house to go to the gym together. PHOTOS: Anderson Cooper Dumps Boyfriend For Texas Doctor. Benjamin and another former Cooper catch, Julio Cesar Recio, were by the grieving newsman’s side at Gloria’s funeral in New York City on June 18 — but the hunky 34-year-old love doc was nowhere to be seen! Lopez, a radiologist, has been very visible on social media, however, posting multiple pictures of himself with his arms ... Anderson Cooper splits with doctor boyfriend after a year. Early 2018, CNN anchor Anderson Cooper, 52, split publicly from longtime boyfriend Benjamin Maisani and began dating Dr. Victor Lopez, 34, — only now, the National Enquirer reports that after a year, the two are no longer together. The Enquirer report further notes that while former partners of Cooper attended the funeral of his ... Also Read: Benjamin Maisani: 5 Facts to Know about Anderson Cooper’s Boyfriend So, Who Is Dr. Victor Lopez? Doctors normally don’t make house calls, but Cooper appears to be the exception. In the midst of the breakup news, the journalist and Vanderbilt heir is reportedly dating a man named Dr. Victor Lopez. Victor Lopez is the rumored boyfriend of Anderson Cooper. Lopez is a doctor who lives in Dallas, Texas. Here's what you need to know. Anderson Cooper ditched his longtime partner — Manhattan nightclub kingpin Benjamin Maisani — to party with hunky radiologist Victor Lopez in Texas! Photo credit: Getty Images/Instagram “Anderson’s been flying out to see him on a regular basis,” a source snitched exclusively to The National ENQUIRER . In 2018, he was linked to 34-year-old doctor Victor Lopez but the alleged romance soon fizzled out. Apparently, the young doctor was a fan, with his Instagram handle name Victoro360, quite similar to the title of Cooper's CNN show Anderson 360. Later, in February, he changed it to Victoro001.

[MEGATHREAD] List of artists dropping music on March 1st

2019.03.01 03:17 kingdomakrillic [MEGATHREAD] List of artists dropping music on March 1st

Emily Warren
Hailee Steinfeld
The Spook School
Bria Valente
Joey Fatone
Imagine Dragons
Biff Bang Pow!
LeToya Luckett
Tyler, The Creator
Mr. Collipark
Cher Lloyd
SoMo
Tami Hert
Paula Abdul
Jermaine Stewart
Debelah Morgan
Cunnie Williams
Eric Miller
Jay R
Alt-J
Tony Orlando
Farrah Franklin
Plavka
Jonathan Knight
Alex Newell
Julia Gerity
Psy
Sheila E.
Tanner Patrick
Lea-Lorien
Soulja Slim
Playboi Carti
Edwin Starr
Ne-Yo
Kherington Payne
Brooke Valentine
Brendan Vintedge
Ruben Studdard
Drew G. Montalvo
DJ Spinz
Joshua Morrow
Phoebe Snow
Hannah Elizabeth
Olivia
Robert Owens
Troy Donahue
Quinn Marston
Alvarez Kings
Lynn Davis
The Dandys
Vanessa Daou
Mic Murphy
Billy Paul
Nicole Scherzinger
John Park
Rob Sonic
Brandon Bell
The Killers
Tony Caso
Michael Alig
Shawty Lo
Matt White
Tay-K
Tony Rich
The Pastels
Jacob Perez
RJD2
Nelly
Jasmine Guy
Skyzoo
Erick Morillo
Marvin Rainwater
Ray Luv
B.G., the Prince of Rap
Brenda K. Starr
Richard Carpenter
John Lombardo
Moby
Edon Molla
Jocelyn Brown
Anita Wood
Alison Wedding
Andy Caldwell
Wafah Dufour
Christopher Williams
Kaya Jones
Apollonia Kotero
Taka Boom
Rico Nasty
Randy Fuller
Fabian Forte
Mike Will Made It
The Bell Sisters
Seals and Crofts
Sir Jinx
Yung Joc
DJ Keoki
SZA
Open Mike Eagle
Kelly Price
Lil Ru
Brandon Bell
Shwayze
Scotty
The Dylans
Jasmine
Rainy Davis
Jeremy Messersmith
Scott Storch
Omega Red
Drew Lachey
1.8.7
David Cicero
Shealeigh
Paul Parker
Frank Sinatra
Phife Dawg
Darius Rucker
Crystal Bowersox
Casey Desmond
Lee Soo-jung
TLC
Marshall Jefferson
Selena Gomez
Marques Houston
David Miller
Jude Johnstone
John Legend
Jack Norworth
Tyga
Lina
Young Dro
Fabo
Shaquille O'Neal
Chrisette Michele
Chris Panaghi
Eli Mattson
Mary Wells
Dionne Warwick
Chrissie Hynde
Dajae
Mia Cox
Rozonda Thomas
Rory Uphold
Joya
Doug Lazy
Neko Case
Rahzel
Pharrell Williams
Dale Houston
John Thomas Griffith
Sandy B
Natalie
Quincy Jones
James Maslow
Snoop Dogg
David Raleigh
Tony Butala
The Rain
Target
Yung Wun
Fonda Rae
Luann de Lesseps
Sundance
Alex Lambert
T-Nutty
Offset
Sybil
Coko
Dawn Robinson
Brenn Hill
Shanice
Latif
Sev Statik
Gwen Guthrie
Val Young
Conya Doss
Vanessa Williams
Savannah Outen
Bob Braun
Bobby Edner
J'Son
Devyn Rose
Simple E
Nayer
Kandi Burruss
Queen Latifah
Becky G
Kevin Woo
Blue Raspberry
Julie Christensen
Beverly Bivens
Betty Johnson
Naturi Naughton
Aria Johnson
Kat Graham
Mitchel Musso
Inas X
Reina
Quando Rondo
Tender
Bobby J
Smitty
Crime Mob
Gwen Dickey
Richie Rich
LaTavia Roberson
Siedah Garrett
Ariana Grande
Midnight Black
Forrest
Dallas Blocker
Lina
Jeremih
SwizZz
Unk
Pink Guy
Nick Cannon
Kendall Schmidt
Chloe Temtchine
Angela Winbush
Goapele
Willow Smith
Liz Lands
Ester Dean
Alex Goot
Coco Jones
Kelly Rowland
Jim Photoglo
Milan the Leather Boy
McCarthy
Maluca Mala
Ashley Ballard
Jeff Coffey
Kevin Griffin
Damion Hall
Selena
Amanda Sudano
Mervyn Warren
Redfoo
Tony LeMans
Brad Howell
The Ragamuffins
Natalie
Pink
Jewel
Charlie Puth
Tracy Young
Emily Osment
Professor Green
Darien Brockington
Big Rube
Keith Washington
Fatman Scoop
Numskull
Sabi
Jimmy Sweeney
Main
Maluca Mala
Izora Armstead
Janette Davis
Rucka Rucka Ali
P. F. Sloan
Marlene Sai
Kevin McHale
Brenton Wood
La'Porsha Renae
Nick Noble
Kat Parsons
Carol Williams
Sparkle
Logan Henderson
Sisqó
Ann Nesby
Lloyd Cole and the Commotions
Jeffrey Daniel
Adeva
Trey Lorenz
Amanda Perez
Robin S.
Bubba Sparxxx
RZA
The Cheeky Girls
Jay Boy Adams
The Boo Radleys
Faith Evans
John Brannen
Bankroll Fresh
Jimmy Velvit
Samantha James
Eric Lindell
Foster Sylvers
Ty Dolla Sign
Anisha Nicole
Vernessa Mitchell
Manchild
DallasK
Nocera
Taral Hicks
Imogen Heap
Stefanie Ridel
So Shush
Miss A
Triple H
Elris
24K
MOBB
MXM
CNBLUE
Hyeongseop X Euiwoong
Boys24
Honey G
Samantha Cole
SOPHIE
Montell Jordan
Duncan Sheik
Best Coast
Gary Clark Jr.
Aaron Carter
Jenna Drey
Signs
Lauriana Mae
Diamond White
Ronnie DeVoe
Chantay Savage
Kaci Brown
Slim
Sevyn Streeter
Shaggy 2 Dope
Paul Petersen
Prince Po
CeeLo Green
Cheesa
Gorilla Zoe
Jim Croce
Oh No
Sam Tsui
Tyrese Gibson
R.W. Hampton
Tory Lanez
Gloria Gaynor
David Garcia
Ski Mask the Slump God
Brontosaurus Chorus
Coasts
Jon B.
Alex Briley
Cyndi Lauper
Preme
V. Rose
Toni Braxton
Brandy Norwood
21 Savage
Gene Austin
Anita Baker
Mars Argo
Frederick Knight
David Archuleta
Nikki D
CoryLavel
Thumpers
Rote Kapelle
Lance Bass
Bertie Higgins
Rob Thomas
Tionne Watkins
Charli XCX
Killian Wells
Milira
2 Chainz
Phat Kat
Chris Trousdale
Jody Watley
Britney Spears
Suge Knight
Bobby Rydell
Shequida
LunchMoney Lewis
Howard Keel
India.Arie
Alyson Williams
The Jasmine Minks
Yvonne Elliman
Beyoncé
Playboi Carti
Melody Thornton
Statik Selektah
Valvin Roane
The Quiett
RuPaul
Like
J Rice
J. Holiday
Pras
Nicki Minaj
Cash Out
Clocks
Mario Winans
Wendy Wilson
Sisaundra Lewis
Lil Scrappy
Polow da Don
Tom Browne
Lena Machado
Terrace Martin
Nordstrom Sisters
Katie Carroll
Ashlee Simpson
Horace Brown
Robert Hood
Rick Rock
Bryana Salaz
Mrs. Miller
Nicci Gilbert
Little Eva
Debelah Morgan
Bebe Rexha
Jimmy Griffin
Terry Ellis
Manny Lehman
Alexa Ray Joel
Future
Shauna Burns
Debbie Deb
Nottz
Gaelle Adisson
Lee DeWyze
Pill
will.i.am
Tyler Carter
Jamie Principle
Norma Jean Wright
Bankroll Mafia
Kat DeLuna
T.O.P
Narada Michael Walden
Andrea Brown
Larry Heard
Stat Quo
Tela
Kaycee Grogan
The Field Mice
Kristine W
Prodigy
Stevie Stone
Janis Martin
Michael Callen
Richard Street
Nebu Kiniza
Danny Madden
Jeanette Jurado
Stacie Orrico
Josh Levi
Carol Douglas
Rich Boy
Billie Eilish
Jay Park
Doris Coley
Djemba Djemba
BC Jean
Marshall Leib
KJ Sawka
Kendall Schmidt
Keke Wyatt
Jack Skuller
Al Green
Bobby Brown
Project Pat
Trillville
Joey Pearson
Jennifer Green
Skinnyman
Jerry Lee Lewis
Jenny Burton
Qwel
Alexa Wilkinson
Barbara Tucker
Nyck Caution
Rah Digga
Bearsuit
Noel Pagan
Roy Ayers
George Duke
Shad
Lottery Winners
David Jenkins
Marc Nelson
Joe South
Rachel Platten
Qwazaar
Debbie Gibson
USDA
Stacey Q
Nichkhun
Paul Williams
Ashanti
Oddisee
Rita Coolidge
Needlz
Scrilla
Jagged Edge
Lloyd
Sarah Hudson
Rod Michael
Geraldine Hunt
Eric Benét
Becky G
T'Melle
Jim Crow
Dem Franchize Boyz
Victor Calderone
Kid Canaveral
Darryl D'Bonneau
The Chainsmokers
Don Vito
Vicci Martinez
We Are Toonz
Janice Robinson
Kevin Saunderson
Kelly Rowland
Fred Milano
Johnnie Allan
Dog Is Dead
K'Jon
JMSN
Nikki Leonti
KC Montero
Tyrone Brunson
Nadine Renee
T-Pain
Pitbull
Sheck Wes
OJ da Juiceman
Siggie Nordstrom
Jamie Pineda
Jonnie and Brookie
Jan Errico
Frankie J
Youceff Kabal
Frank Bango
La Toya Jackson
Ben Bledsoe
Simon D
Mammoth Penguins
King Britt
Lisa Lisa
Cris Gunther
Cha Cha Malone
Lyfe Jennings
Tyler Hilton
Mikey Wax
Claudette Ortiz
Diamond
Deemi
Juice Newton
Nat King Cole
Helen Slater
Eleanor
Stitches
Randolph's Leap
Herb Alpert
Kaydean
Shana
Shareefa
Sisely Treasure
Xscape
Dino
Donnie Klang
The Mono Polys
Olivia O'Brien
Yvonne Elliman
Kristinia DeBarge
Frankie Sardo
Rich The Kid
Sarah Burgess
Kim Fox
Abra
Stella Soleil
Shy Glizzy
Jonell
Chantay Savage
Mýa
The Times
LaKiesha Berri
Terence Trent D'Arby
Chuckii Booker
Lady Miss Kier
Akon
John West
Keke Palmer
Po!
Jessica Simpson
Donna Summer
Kim Sanders
Tank
Crystal Waters
Olivia
Future
Kym Sims
Abra Moore
Tedashii
Karyn White
Sage the Gemini
Sunny
Karen Dior
Tori Alamaze
Jennifer Lopez
Frank Infante
Tor Miller
Dallas Blocker
Queen Latifah
Samo Sound Boy
Lily Elise
Psy
Collage
Da BackWudz
Danny Tenaglia
Mason Musso
Shelby Flint
Martha Wash
Tompaulin
Sha Money XL
Audio (B5)
Teyana Taylor
Trick Daddy
Hoodrich Pablo Juan
Petey Pablo
Karen Bernod
Nujabes
Cecy B
Tablo
Dan Gilroy
Natalie Merchant
Dion DiMucci
Jamie Wednesday
Angela Lanza
Gloria D. Brown
Vicki Spencer
Hulk Hogan
Jillian Hervey
Dungeon Family
Smooth
Angel Faith
Stephanie Mills
Kelly Sweet
Michelle Williams
Teedra Moses
Mighty Mighty
PARTYNEXTDOOR
Christopher Massey
J-Boog
Nitty Scott, MC
Sylvester
Ann Curless
Sunshine Becker
Big Boi
Lani Hall
Samuel
Dear Jayne
Zulema
T. J. Lottie
Shaggy
Louie DeVito
Gabbie Rae
Patsy Cline
Syd Tha Kyd
Anthony Hamilton
The Melons
Penny Ford
Frankie Avalon
Terri Sharp
Walter Kahn
Nina Flowers
The Sea Urchins
Alan Osmond
Krystal Davis
LeLe XO
Cindy Herron
Yvonne De Carlo
Rich The Kid
Sean Combs[2]
Kellee
Jenifer Rice-Genzuk Henry
Roy Davis Jr.
Kelly Price
Jim Jonsin
Tabi Bonney
Tender Trap
Timmy T
Snootie Wild
Nitti
Adam Lambert
DVS1
Cheryl Pepsii Riley
Cindy Morgan
Akon
Jeff Redd
Pamala Stanley
Brie Larson
Lawrence Irving Wilde
Škabo
Jean-Michel Soupraya
James Taylor
Shevyn Roberts
Frou Frou
Tito Jackson
Jamia Simone Nash
Bazzi
Gerry Beckley
Jidenna
Nivea
Leif Garrett
Ron Holden
MadeinTYO
Gucci Mane
Doe Paoro
Malaika
Toni Fisher
Starkillers
Captain Rapp
Monifah
Valerie Landsburg
Bette Midler
Skeme
R. Kelly
Fred Zarr
Queen Pen
Hani
Brian Hyland
Paul Laurence
Sabi
Shorty
Perri "Pebbles" Reid
Lina Santiago
Tony Yayo
Spose
Joey Pearson
Jason Weaver
Warren Storm
Clint Crisher
Andrea True
Heavenly
Randy Jones
The Ting Tings
Helen Love
Quavo
Maejor
Thousand Yard Stare
The Crookes
Amanda Brown
Byron Stingily
Kat Solar
Scram Jones
The Happiness Boys
Marcia Hines
Lorenzo Smith
Hard Boyz
Watch The Duck
Said the Sky
Nancy Holloway
Tommy Edwards
Kristin Hersh
Q-Tip
Rye Rye
Miranda Cosgrove
Johnnie Ray
Madonna
Plies
Delays
Doreen Taylor
Teairra Marí
Termanology
Dee Dee Phelps
Nathan Morris
Millie Scott
Ashley Roberts
Christina Milian
Bridget Kelly
CeeLo Green
Chris Hawkes
Jennie Kwan
Rufus Wainwright
Obi
Karen Young
Tisha Campbell-Martin
Jessica Simpson
Kevin Woo
Rampage
Georgie Porgie
Ledisi
Ross Barbour
Soce, the elemental wizard
Herizen F. Guardiola
Coco Lee
Papa Reu
Rico Love
Sarkodie
Gwen Stefani
Sirah
Slater Rhea
Razorcuts
Ricky Fanté
Amber Holcomb
Oliver Cheatham
Jesse Boykins III
Joni James
Moné
Glenn Hughes
Shorty Mack
Don Lennon
Eli Lieb
Julie London
Nancy Whang
Peter Stuart
Duane Harden
Dun Deal
Gerald Alston
Clair Marlo
Mike Schurr
RBX
Kenny "Dope" Gonzalez
Aaron Smith
Steve "Silk" Hurley
Tone Loc
Cunnie Williams
Debbie Loeb
Trixie's Big Red Motorbike
Billy Swan
Cherish
Supreeme
Don Rich
Franz Ferdinand
Teddy Edwards
Shamari Fears
Sheek Louch
Banks
Usher
Quintavious Johnson
Janelle Monáe
Nia Peeples
Darlene Love
Kesha
P.C.T
Tee Grizzley
Sonsee
Roscoe
The Waltones
Kat Nestel
Ambersunshower
Saba
Takeoff
Aiden James
Cher
Veronica Falls
Tony Sunshine
Tramaine Hawkins
Rajiv Dhall
Tech N9ne
Keith Sweat
Monica
Shyne
Shady Nate
Davina (R&B singer)
Houston
Johnny Preston
Marc Terenzi
Shannon Curtis
Fred LeBlanc
The Loves
Brad Howell
Ray J
Jeremy Jordan
A Girl Called Eddy
Gavin Becker
Ray Cash
Tyler Joseph
Abimbola Fernandez
Leanne "Lelee" Lyons
Charisse Arrington
Silkk the Shocker
Teena Marie
Blossom Dearie
Peter Brown
I-20
R. Kelly
Obie Trice
Meiko
Ryan Leslie
Emily Warren
AJ Gil
Rosie Gaines
DJ Felli Fel
Diva Gray
Morris Day
Clyde McPhatter
The Siddeleys
Paul Sanchez
MattyB
Pink
Jeff Timmons
Bob Seger
Paul Gilbert
Queen Latifah
Suga
Julian Velard
Saweetie
Keyshia Cole
Faith Page
Javier Colon
Sarah Kelly
Lynn Davis
Michael Jackson
The Charlottes
Troy Shondell
Stoupe the Enemy of Mankind
Charmaine
Tiffany Foxx
Troy Ave
Shane
Lobo
Doreen Taylor
Philthy Rich
Bridget Kelly
Chris Willis
Amerie
Mario
Johnny Gill
Bobby Vinton
O'Bryan
Dan Hartman
Dead Disco
Jazzmun
Amerie
Katy Rose
Saigon
Deniece Williams
Jim Jiminee
Barry White
Djoir
Eric Redd
Toney Lee
George Tandy Jr.
Jessi Jae Joplin
Black Riot
Mandy Lauderdale
Leona Anderson
Ciara
Glen Campbell
Lina
Jody Watley
Jonathan Pretus
Curtis Jones
Bleona
Tim Leberecht
Tyra Bolling
Brian Littrell
Raven-Symoné
Charlie Peacock
JC Chasez
Julissa Veloz
Nicole Scherzinger
Joe
Radiohead
Nick Lachey
Res
Ol' Dirty Bastard
Frankie Knuckles
Garry Glenn
Porta
Trae tha Truth
Brian Justin Crum
Johnnie Johnston
Suga Free
Pete and the Pirates
Tony Thompson
Nick Dean
Siedah Garrett
Robyn
DJ Disciple
Steady B
Bad Boy Joe
Chloe Rose Lattanzi
14 Iced Bears
Raekwon
Kari Kimmel
Phyllis Nelson
Tracie Spencer
Jacinta Brondgeest
Vic Dana
Jamie Foxx
Jermaine Jackson
Jill Scott
Dorothy Collins
Pastor Troy
Lionel Richie
Twila Paris
Kilo Ali
Jeannie Ortega
Jose Nuñez
Keisha Jackson
Lillie McCloud
Pearl Reaves
Sean Kingston
Corina
Cheryl Ladd
Trevor Jackson
Plumb
Cevin Fisher
Cree Summer
Brian Kent
Man from Delmonte
Ashley Roberts
Trinidad James
Latanza Waters
D'Angelo
Timbaland
Tay Walker
Rakim
Swae Lee
Niki Haris
Kato on the Track
Joey Lawrence
Edon Molla
Camille
Jackson Harris
BJ the Chicago Kid
Wang Leehom
Gilda Maiken
B. J. Thomas
Phora
Tiffany Evans
Runaway GO
K. Michelle
Romeo Miller
Julienne Irwin
Pacewon
Tracie Spencer
Vromance
The SeeYa
MASC
Nine Muses A
D-Unit
AOA Cream
Teairra Marí
Maxwell
Shawn Christopher
Terrence Parker
Judy Torres
Howie Day
Lil Baby
Jessica Sutta
Nayobe
Cazwell
Rhythm Power
Standing Egg
Sistar
Teen Top
Touch
The Boss
Matt Morris
Jessi
George J. Gaskin
Ester Dean
Royksopp
Shock G
Utada Hikaru
Positive K
Jipsta
The Shop Assistants
Margaret Young
Tim Cruz
Pal Shazar
Bobby Brown
Lana Lane
St. Christopher
Chuck Woolery
The Pipettes
Elijah Connor
Nichole Nordeman
Phil Campos
Allo Darlin'
Wayne Osmond
Cupid
Beyonce
Tristan Prettyman
Larry "Jazz" Anthony
Snow Tha Product
Ashley Alexandra Dupré
Nikki Hornsby
Pussy Tourette
Amber Liu
Keri Hilson
Bob Manning
Cyber Sapp
Benny Profane
V.I.C.
Sadat X
Vanessa Hudgens
The Ponce Sisters
Lynn Carey Saylor
Omarion
Brian Cole
Joshua Kadison
Slau
Lisa Lopes
Tinie Tempah
Joan Osborne
Jane French
Frankee
Tink
Savage
Gloria Estefan
Amber Lily
DJ Colette
Brandi Carlile
Ben E. King
Penny Ford
DJ Toomp
Robin Ward
Billy Preston
Michael Fennelly
Tim Dog
India Arie
Chris Ayer
Link
Greg Kihn
Reks
Sam Phillips
Bjork
Stacy Lattisaw
Childish Gambino
Sierra Kay
Dwele
Larry Finnegan
Kenny Greene
Lil Louis
Marteen
Viola Wills
Scarlet
Carly Smithson
Lisa Matassa
EJay Day
Suffa
The Lightning Seeds
Mayra Verónica
Air Castles
Tara Kemp
Gerald Casale
Fickle Friends
Coco Lee
Cheyne
Terence Trent D'Arby
Aileen Stanley
Leah LaBelle
Shandi Sinnamon
Stalley
Evans the Death
Tupac Shakur
Nitty
The Sundays
Tevin Campbell
Stokley Williams
Roy Woods
Von Smith
Tracey Dey
Russ
Oasis
Traci Braxton
Billy Vera
Fernando Perdomo
Marilyn Marshall
Brooke Waggoner
Trust Fund
Adrian Marcel
Gene Summers
Eydie Gormé
Ashley Hamilton
John Travolta
Bis
Lana Del Rey
Nas
Bone Crusher
Ricky Meléndez
Travis Scott
Jackie Moore
Post Malone
Michelle Visage
Carmit Bachar
Kina
RJ
Motion Potion
Bradley Skaught
Tracey Lee
Austin Mahone
Viola Beach
Michael McCary
Alfred Apaka
Celeda
David Paich
Stefano Langone
Tonedeff
Chris Akinyemi
Sabac Red
One Be Lo
R.A. the Rugged Man
Joseph Williams
Fantasia Barrino
Lisa Fischer
Dhar Braxton
Nivea
Naturi Naughton
Scrufizzer
Regina Belle
Teresa Brewer
Lauren Wood
Jeff Palmer
Stagecoach
Sam Kim
Quan
Tae Brooks
Sasha Allen
Teddy Riley
Leela James
Cyhi the Prynce
Lisa Lopes
Gaelle Adisson
Ryn Weaver
Joe Pizzulo
Paula Kelley
Dorothy Moore
Mali Music
Suzee Ikeda
Amanda Grace
Timotha Lanae
Silentó
Monifah
Kari Wuhrer
Victoria Wilson-James
Browning Bryant
PNC
Bobby Creekwater
Lane Caudell
SL Jones
William Hung
Rowdy Rebel
Merrill Osmond
Redfoo
ILoveMakonnen
Zella Day
Rob Skipper & The Musical Differences
PnB Rock
Big Leaves
Spector
Leah Kauffman
Raz Fresco
David Byrne
Monica
The Shortwave Set
Kriss Sheridan
Andy Grammer
Crystal Castles
Levi Kreis
Kathleen Bradley
Dana Glover
Flo Rida
Patti Austin
Jaz
Omillio Sparks
LaToya London
Noël
B Angie B
Lynn Gunn
George Baldi III
Russ Columbo
Simon Curtis
Syleena Johnson
Spider Loc
Nicole Wray
The Jet Age of Tomorrow
Marilyn Chambers
Kimberley Locke
Camera Obscura
Waka Flocka
Scatman John
Marion Harris
N.O.R.E.
Jaye P. Morgan
Chorusgirl
Taylor Swift
Peggy Santiglia
Toni Tennille
Y.C.
Tina Moore
Larry Ramos
Twisted Insane
Bryton James
St. Clair Lee
Eric Nam
Noah "40" Shebib
Harry Wayne Casey
Jussie Smollett
Paul Williams
Brooke Hogan
Bobby Orlando
Asia Nitollano
Saint Etienne
Michael Sterling
Lalah Hathaway
Richard Morel
Shawnna
Nick Lachey
Roberta Kelly
Nivea
Tinashe
Pleasure P
Yvette Michele
Suzanne Palmer
Aiden Leslie
William Pitt
Amel Larrieux
Jack Jones
Paris
Five Times August
Serengeti
Bobby Comstock
Athena Cage
Chris Crocker
Raphael Saadiq
Lisa R. Fredenthal-Lee
Teyana Taylor
Ghetto Mafia
Ludacris
Brent Faiyaz
Eamon
Al B. Sure!
Didi Benami
Eric Anzalone
Zhavia Ward
Tim K
Muse
Krystal Harris
Jon Peter Lewis
JoJo
Rocko
Avery Storm
Ladytron
Travis Porter
Jermaine Dupri
C.I.V.A
Cosmic Girls
S.I.S
Duetto
Weki Meki
Boyfriend
I.B.I
Clover
Be.A
C-Clown
IZ
Dal Shabet
Victon
Golden Child
Alanis Morissette
Dan Fogelberg
Maxine Jones
Marlon Jackson
Bernard Jackson
Tony Bennett
CeCe Peniston
Shawn Rivera
Patti Miner
Tha Chill
Rich Homie Quan
Nancy Overton
Theophilus London
Wolf Girl
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Jay-J
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P
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NU'EST W
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L2
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Silk
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Bray
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Shequida
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Alanis Morissette
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Hayedeh
John Torres
Alexis Jordan
Nathan Max
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Allie Gonino
H.E.R.
Jenna Drey
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Russell Arms
Jhené Aiko
Wanz
C.O.D.
DJ Ricardo!
Fantasia Barrino
Tje Austin
Ron Pope
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NF
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Spooks
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Nav
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Dev
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Shyheim
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Saafir
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RL
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Phonte
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Graciela Beltrán
Styles P
Maysa Leak
Sandy Posey
OhBoy!
Robin Thicke
Regina Zernay Roberts
Gwen McCrae
Donnie Klang
Matthew Wilder
Jennifer Rush
The Notorious B.I.G.[2]
Scarface
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Ray Simpson
Lani Renaldo
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LaTour
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Comet Gain
Princessa
Reema Major
Tanner Cohen
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Andrea Brown
Spoonie Gee
Case
Jordan Pruitt
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Rockwell
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Steven Greenberg
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Anna Gilbert
Olivia Bonilla
Ashanti
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Rod Bernard
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Mat Kearney
Jessica Riddle
Taylor Hicks
Bobby V
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Migos
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Gwen Dickey
Fixers
Kiley Dean
The Wolfhounds
Noname
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Olamide
Rich Brian
Toni Arden
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Tay Dizm
Meli'sa Morgan
Witching Waves
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Mark Foster
Ruben Studdard
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Spot
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August Alsina
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MARINA
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Yahzarah
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LIZ
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SpaceGhostPurrp
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Tatyana Ali
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Niia
Trinere
Koo Chung
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Michael Nestor
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Swim Deep
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N
Tonya Mitchell
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Ernie K-Doe
QT
Ann Nesby
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AM
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Uffie
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Windmill
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Pusha T
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Corbin
Alisha
Silla
Amy Kuney
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Aaliyah
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Robin Clark
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Carlo Mastrangelo
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Shamir
Becca
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Tha Trademarc
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Standard Fare
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Baby D
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Stat Quo
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Roscoe Dash
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Travis Garland
Tina Ann
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A-Jax
Kard
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15&
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112
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Jo Ann Campbell
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100%
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Jessie James Decker
Shawty Lo
Bobby Helms
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Stacy Francis
Kaci Brown
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The Servants
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Anthony David
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Mark Mangold
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Blu Cantrell
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Andrew Logan
Gunna
Too Short
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The Boy Least Likely To
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M
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L
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Planetary
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Sean Price
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KNK
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VIXX
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Donnie Brooks
Kathy Troccoli
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Elle Varner
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Usher
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Miki Howard
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Kvitka Cisyk
Blaire Reinhard
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Wilbert Harrison
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Static Major
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Chris Bender
Lowline
KDrew
Emerson Hart
Arrested Development
Billy Joel
Scrilla
Kirsten Price
Royce da 5'9"
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Felix Cavaliere
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Eli "Paperboy" Reed
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Rania
Sistar19
Ramey Dawoud
Elliott Yamin
Cory Lerios
N'Dea Davenport
Keke Wyatt
DJ Dan
Ingrid Burley
Lil' Kim
Kouros Shahmiri
Victoria Justice
submitted by kingdomakrillic to popheadscirclejerk [link] [comments]


2019.02.05 02:37 sconce2600 The List 2019: Who's out!

The Lineup is out, bold denotes acts that ended up on the lineup
The following are out due to lack of precedent
2018 OSLs lineup
2017 OSLs lineup
Out due to gigs at AT&T Park (Capacity: 41,915)/Levi's Stadium (Capacity: 75,000) in San Francisco and Santa Clara CA
Out due to gigs at Shoreline Amphitheatre (Capacity: 22,500) in Mountain View CA (May through November)
Out due to gigs at the Oracle arena (Capacity: 19,596) in Oakland CA
Out due to gigs at the Chase Center (Capacity: 18,064) in San Francisco CA
Out due to gigs at the Golden One Center (Capacity: 17,608) in Sacramento CA
Out due to gigs at the SAP Center (Capacity: 17,496) in San Jose CA
Out due to gigs at the Concord Pavilion (Capacity: 12,500) in Concord CA (May through November)
Out due to gigs at the Greek Theatre (Capacity: 8,500) in Berkley CA (May through November)
Out due to gigs at Bill Graham Civic Auditorium (Capacity: 7,000) in San Francisco CA (February through November)
Out due to gigs at the Frost Amphitheater in Stanford CA (May through November)
Out due to gigs at the Masonic (Capacity: 3,165) in San Francisco CA (May through November)
Out due to gigs at the Paramount Theatre (Capacity: 3,040) in Oakland CA (May through November)
Out due to gigs at SVN West (Capacity: 3,000) in San Francisco CA (May through November)
Out due to gigs at the City National Civic (Capacity: 2,850) in San Jose CA (May through November)
Out due to gigs at the Warfield (Capacity: 2,300) in San Francisco CA (May through November)
Out due to gigs at the Mountain Winery (Capacity: 2,278) in Saratoga CA (May through November)
Out due to gigs at the Fox theater (Capacity: 2,250) in Oakland CA (May through November)
Out due to gigs at 1015 Folsom (Capacity: 1,400) in San Francisco (May through November)
Out due to gigs at UC Theatre (Capacity: 1,400) in Berkley CA (May through November)
Out due to gigs at the Fillmore (Capacity: 1,050) in San Francisco CA (May 9th through November)
Out due to gigs at the Regency Ballroom (Capacity: 1,050) in San Francisco CA (May 18th through November)
Out due to gigs at the August Hall (Capacity : 1,000) in San Francisco CA (May through November)
Out due to gigs at the Mezzanine (Capacity: 1,000) in San Francisco CA (May through November)
Out due to gigs at the Uptown (Capacity: 863) in Napa CA (May through November)
Out due to gigs at the Bimbo's 365 (Capacity: 685) in San Francisco CA (May through November)
Out due to gigs at the Great American Music Hall (Capacity: 600) in San Francisco CA (May through November)
Out due to gigs at the Cornerstone (Capacity: 600) in Berkeley CA (May through November)
Out due to gigs at the Chapel (Capacity: 500) in San Francisco CA (May through November)
Out due to gigs at the Slims (Capacity: 500) in San Francisco CA (May through November)
Out due to gigs at the Independent (Capacity: 500) in San Francisco CA (May through November)
Out due to playing Bottlerock in Napa CA (May 26th-28th) (top 48 acts only)
Out due to being the top 13 acts from BottleRock 2018
Out due to playing Second Sky Fest in Oakland CA (June 15th)
Out due to playing Clusterfest in San Francisco CA (June 21st-23rd)
Out due to playing Burger Boogaloo in Oakland CA (June 30th-July 1st)
Out due to playing Sonoma Harvest in Glen Ellen CA (September 22nd-23rd)
Out due to playing Flow festival in Finland (same weekend as OSLs)
Out due to playing Ypsigrock festival in Italy (same weekend as OSLs)
Out due to playing Boardmasters festival in the UK (same weekend as OSLs)
Out due to playing Way out West festival in Sweden (same weekend as OSLs)
Out due to playing Smukfest in Denmark (same weekend as OSLs)
Out due to playing Oya Festival in Norway (same weekend as OSLs)
Out due to playing SonneMondSterne Festival in Germany (same weekend as OSLs)
Out due to playing The Boaty Weekend in Spain (same weekend as OSLs)
Out due to playing Boomtown Fair in the UK (same weekend as OSLs)
Out due to playing Haven Festival in Denmark (same weekend as OSLs)
Out due to playing Sziget Festival in Hungary (same weekend as OSLs)
Out due to playing Haldren Pop Festival in Germany (same weekend as OSLs)
Out due to playing Grape Festival in Slovakia (same weekend as OSLs)
Out due to playing Summer Well in Romania (same weekend as OSLs)
Out for other reasons
submitted by sconce2600 to OutsideLands [link] [comments]


2018.07.17 01:46 Chtorrr cat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This article is about the cat species that is commonly kept as a pet. For the cat family, see Felidae. For other uses, see Cat (disambiguation) and Cats (disambiguation). For technical reasons, "Cat #1" redirects here. For the album, see Cat 1 (album). Domestic cat[1] Cat poster 1.jpg Various types of domestic cat Conservation status Domesticated Scientific classification e Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Felidae Subfamily: Felinae Genus: Felis Species: F. silvestris Subspecies: F. s. catus Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus Linnaeus, 1758[2] Synonyms Felis catus (original combination)[3] Felis catus domestica (invalid junior synonym)[4]
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus)[1][5] is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal. They are often called house cats[6] when kept as indoor pets or simply cats when there is no need to distinguish them from other felids and felines. They are often valued by humans for companionship and for their ability to hunt vermin. There are more than seventy cat breeds recognized by various cat registries.
Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felids, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws and teeth adapted to killing small prey. Cat senses fit a crepuscular and predatory ecological niche. Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals. They can see in near darkness. Like most other mammals, cats have poorer color vision and a better sense of smell than humans. Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a social species, and cat communication includes the use of a variety of vocalizations (mewing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting) as well as cat pheromones and types of cat-specific body language.[7]
Cats have a high breeding rate.[8] Under controlled breeding, they can be bred and shown as registered pedigree pets, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering, as well as the abandonment of former household pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, requiring population control.[9] In certain areas outside cats' native range, this has contributed, along with habitat destruction and other factors, to the extinction of many bird species. Cats have been known to extirpate a bird species within specific regions and may have contributed to the extinction of isolated island populations.[10] Cats are thought to be primarily responsible for the extinction of 87 species of birds,[11] and the presence of feral and free-ranging cats makes some otherwise suitable locations unsuitable for attempted species reintroduction.[12]
Because cats were venerated in ancient Egypt, they were commonly believed to have been domesticated there,[13] but there may have been instances of domestication as early as the Neolithic from around 9,500 years ago (7500 BC).[14] A genetic study in 2007[15] concluded that all domestic cats are descended from Near Eastern wildcats, having diverged around 8000 BC in the Middle East.[13][16] A 2016 study found that leopard cats were undergoing domestication independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domesticated populations of today.[17][18] A 2017 study confirmed that domestic cats are descendants of those first domesticated by farmers in the Near East around 9,000 years ago.[19][20]
As of a 2007 study, cats are the second-most popular pet in the U.S. by number of pets owned, behind freshwater fish.[21] In a 2010 study, they were ranked the third-most popular pet in the UK, after fish and dogs, with around 8 million being owned.[22]
Contents 1 Taxonomy and evolution 2 Nomenclature and etymology 3 Biology 3.1 Anatomy 3.2 Physiology 3.2.1 Nutrition 3.3 Senses 3.4 Health 3.4.1 Diseases 3.5 Genetics 4 Behavior 4.1 Sociability 4.2 Communication 4.3 Grooming 4.4 Fighting 4.5 Hunting and feeding 4.6 Running 4.7 Play 4.8 Reproduction 5 Ecology 5.1 Habitats 5.2 Feral cats 5.3 Impact on prey species 5.4 Impact on birds 6 Interaction with humans 6.1 Cat show 6.2 Cat café 6.3 Ailurophobia 6.4 Cat bites 6.5 Infections transmitted from cats to humans 6.6 History and mythology 6.6.1 Superstitions and cat burning 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links Taxonomy and evolution Main article: Cat evolution The domestic cat is a member of the cat family, the felids, which are a rapidly evolving family of mammals that share a common ancestor only 10–15 million years ago[23] and include lions, tigers, cougars and many others. Within this family, domestic cats (Felis catus) are part of the genus Felis, which is a group of small cats containing about seven species (depending upon classification scheme).[1][24] Members of the genus are found worldwide and include the jungle cat (Felis chaus) of southeast Asia, European wildcat (F. silvestris silvestris), African wildcat (F. s. lybica), the Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti), and the Arabian sand cat (F. margarita), among others.[25]
The domestic cat is believed to have evolved from the Near Eastern wildcat, whose range covers vast portions of the Middle East westward to the Atlantic coast of Africa.[26][27] Between 70,000 and 100,000 years ago the animal gave rise to the genetic lineage that eventually produced all domesticated cats,[28] having diverged from the Near Eastern wildcat around 8,000 BC in the Middle East.[13][16]
The domestic cat was first classified as Felis catus by Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae published in 1758.[1][2] Because of modern phylogenetics, domestic cats are usually regarded as another subspecies of the wildcat, F. silvestris.[1][29][30] This has resulted in mixed usage of the terms, as the domestic cat can be called by its subspecies name, Felis silvestris catus.[1][29][30] Wildcats have also been referred to as various subspecies of F. catus,[30] but in 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature fixed the name for wildcats as F. silvestris.[31] The most common name in use for the domestic cat remains F. catus. Sometimes, the domestic cat has been called Felis domesticus[32] as proposed by German naturalist J. C. P. Erxleben in 1777,[33] but these are not valid taxonomic names and have been used only rarely in scientific literature.[34] A population of Transcaucasian black feral cats was once classified as Felis daemon (Satunin 1904) but now this population is considered to be a part of the domestic cat.[35]
All the cats in this genus share a common ancestor that is believed to have lived around 6–7 million years ago in the Near East (the Middle East).[36] The exact relationships within the Felidae are close but still uncertain,[37][38] e.g. the Chinese mountain cat is sometimes classified (under the name Felis silvestris bieti) as a subspecies of the wildcat, like the North African variety F. s. lybica.[29][37]
Ancient Egyptian sculpture of the cat goddess Bastet. The earliest evidence of felines as Egyptian deities comes from c. 3100 BC. In comparison to dogs, cats have not undergone major changes during the domestication process, as the form and behavior of the domestic cat is not radically different from those of wildcats and domestic cats are perfectly capable of surviving in the wild.[39][40] Fully domesticated house cats often interbreed with feral F. catus populations,[41] producing hybrids such as the Kellas cat. This limited evolution during domestication means that hybridisation can occur with many other felids, notably the Asian leopard cat.[42] Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have predisposed them for domestication as pets.[40] These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence.[43]:12–17 Several small felid species may have an inborn tendency towards tameness.[40]
Cats have either a mutualistic or commensal relationship with humans. Two main theories are given about how cats were domesticated. In one, people deliberately tamed cats in a process of artificial selection as they were useful predators of vermin.[44] This has been criticized as implausible, because the reward for such an effort may have been too little; cats generally do not carry out commands and although they do eat rodents, other species such as ferrets or terriers may be better at controlling these pests.[29] The alternative idea is that cats were simply tolerated by people and gradually diverged from their wild relatives through natural selection, as they adapted to hunting the vermin found around humans in towns and villages.[29]
Nomenclature and etymology The origin of the English word cat (Old English catt) and its counterparts in other Germanic languages (such as German Katze), descended from Proto-Germanic *kattōn-, is controversial. It has traditionally thought to be a borrowing from Late Latin cattus, 'domestic cat', from catta (used around 75 AD by Martial),[45][46] compare also Byzantine Greek κάττα, Portuguese and Spanish gato, French chat, Maltese qattus, Lithuanian katė, and Old Church Slavonic kotъ (kotka), among others.[47] The Late Latin word is generally thought to originate from an Afro-Asiatic language, but every proposed source word has presented problems. Many references refer to "Berber" (Kabyle) kaddîska, 'wildcat', and Nubian kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M. Lionel Bender suggesets the Nubian term is a loan from Arabic قِطَّة qiṭṭa.[48] Jean-Paul Savignac suggests the Latin word is from an Ancient Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau, 'tomcat', or its feminine form suffixed with -t,[49] but John Huehnergard says "the source [...] was clearly not Egyptian itself, where no analogous form is attested."[48] Huehnergard opines it is "equally likely that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic". Guus Kroonen also considers the word to be native to Germanic (due to morphological alternations) and Northern Europe, and suggests that it might ultimately be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gađfe, 'female stoat', and Hungarian hölgy, 'stoat'; from Proto-Uralic *käďwä, 'female (of a furred animal)'.[50] In any case, cat is a classic example of a Wanderwort.
An alternative word is English puss (extended as pussy and pussycat). Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegian pus, pusekatt. Similar forms exist in Lithuanian puižė and Irish puisín or puiscín. The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply arisen from a sound used to attract a cat.[51][52]
A group of cats can be referred to as a clowder or a glaring;[53] a male cat is called a tom or tomcat[54] (or a gib,[55] if neutered); an unspayed female is called a queen,[56] especially in a cat-breeding context; and a juvenile cat is referred to as a kitten. The male progenitor of a cat, especially a pedigreed cat, is its sire,[57] and its mother is its dam[58] In Early Modern English, the word kitten was interchangeable with the now obsolete word catling.[59]
A pedigreed cat is one whose ancestry is recorded by a cat fancier organization. A purebred (or pure-bred) cat is one whose ancestry contains only individuals of the same breed. Many pedigreed and especially purebred cats are exhibited as show cats. Cats of unrecorded, mixed ancestry are referred to as domestic short-haired or domestic long-haired cats (by coat type), or commonly as random-bred, moggies (chiefly British), or (using terms borrowed from dog breeding) mongrels or mutt-cats.
While the African wildcat is the ancestral subspecies from which domestic cats are descended, and wildcats and domestic cats can completely interbreed (being subspecies of the same species), several intermediate stages occur between domestic pet and pedigree cats on one hand and entirely wild animals on the other. The semi-feral cat, a mostly outdoor cat, is not owned by any one individual, but is generally friendly to people and may be fed by several households. Truly feral cats are associated with human habitation areas, foraging for food and sometimes intermittently fed by people, but are typically wary of human interaction.[41]
Biology Anatomy Main article: Cat anatomy
Diagram of the general anatomy of a male Domestic cats are similar in size to the other members of the genus Felis, typically weighing between 4 and 5 kg (9 and 10 lb).[37] Some breeds, such as the Maine Coon, can occasionally exceed 11 kg (24 lb). Conversely, very small cats, less than 2 kg (4 lb), have been reported.[60] The world record for the largest cat is 21 kg (50 lb).[61][self-published source] The smallest adult cat ever officially recorded weighed around 1 kg (2 lb).[61] Feral cats tend to be lighter, as they have more limited access to food than house cats. The Boston Cat Hospital weighted trapped feral cats, and found the average feral adult male to weigh 4 kg (9 lb), and average adult female 3 kg (7 lb).[62] Cats average about 23–25 cm (9–10 in) in height and 46 cm (18 in) in head/body length (males being larger than females), with tails averaging 30 cm (12 in) in length;[63] feral cats may be smaller on average.
Cats have seven cervical vertebrae, as do almost all mammals; 13 thoracic vertebrae (humans have 12); seven lumbar vertebrae (humans have five); three sacral vertebrae like most mammals (humans have five); and a variable number of caudal vertebrae in the tail (humans have only vestigial caudal vertebrae, fused into an internal coccyx).[64]:11 The extra lumbar and thoracic vertebrae account for the cat's spinal mobility and flexibility. Attached to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the pelvis.[64] :16 Unlike human arms, cat forelimbs are attached to the shoulder by free-floating clavicle bones which allow them to pass their body through any space into which they can fit their head.[65]
Cat skull The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful and specialized jaw.[66]:35 Within the jaw, cats have teeth adapted for killing prey and tearing meat. When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two long canine teeth, inserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing its spinal cord, causing irreversible paralysis and death.[67] Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae.[67] The premolar and first molar together compose the carnassial pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors. These are vital in feeding, since cats' small molars cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication.[66]:37 Although cats tend to have better teeth than most humans, with decay generally less likely because of a thicker protective layer of enamel, a less damaging saliva, less retention of food particles between teeth, and a diet mostly devoid of sugar, they are nonetheless subject to occasional tooth loss and infection.[68]
Cats, like dogs, are digitigrades. They walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg.[69] Cats are capable of walking very precisely because, like all felines, they directly register; that is, they place each hind paw (almost) directly in the print of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks. This also provides sure footing for their hind paws when they navigate rough terrain. Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" gait; that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side. This trait is shared with camels and giraffes. As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait changes to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals (and many other land animals, such as lizards): the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously.[70]
Like almost all members of the Felidae, cats have protractable and retractable claws.[71] In their normal, relaxed position, the claws are sheathed with the skin and fur around the paw's toe pads. This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey. The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet.[72] Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws. They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing, kneading, or for extra traction on soft surfaces. Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws.[73] The fifth front claw (the dewclaw) is proximal to the other claws. More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger". This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists, is the carpal pad, also found on the paws of big cats and dogs. It has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping. Some breeds of cats are prone to polydactyly (extra toes and claws).[73] These are particularly common along the northeast coast of North America.[74]
Physiology Cats are familiar and easily kept animals, and their physiology has been particularly well studied; it generally resembles those of other carnivorous mammals, but displays several unusual features probably attributable to cats' descent from desert-dwelling species.[32] For instance, cats are able to tolerate quite high temperatures: Humans generally start to feel uncomfortable when their skin temperature passes about 38 °C (100 °F), but cats show no discomfort until their skin reaches around 52 °C (126 °F),[66]:46 and can tolerate temperatures of up to 56 °C (133 °F) if they have access to water.[75]
Normal physiological values[76]:330 Body temperature 38.6 °C (101.5 °F) Heart rate 120–140 beats per minute Breathing rate 16–40 breaths per minute
Thermograph of various body parts of a cat Cats conserve heat by reducing the flow of blood to their skin and lose heat by evaporation through their mouths. Cats have minimal ability to sweat, with glands located primarily in their paw pads,[77] and pant for heat relief only at very high temperatures[78] (but may also pant when stressed). A cat's body temperature does not vary throughout the day; this is part of cats' general lack of circadian rhythms and may reflect their tendency to be active both during the day and at night.[79]:1 Cats' feces are comparatively dry and their urine is highly concentrated, both of which are adaptations to allow cats to retain as much water as possible.[32] Their kidneys are so efficient, they can survive on a diet consisting only of meat, with no additional water,[80] and can even rehydrate by drinking seawater.[81][79]:29While domestic cats are able to swim, they are generally reluctant to enter water as it quickly leads to exhaustion.[82]
Nutrition Cats are obligate carnivores: their physiology has evolved to efficiently process meat, and they have difficulty digesting plant matter.[32] In contrast to omnivores such as rats, which only require about 4% protein in their diet, about 20% of a cat's diet must be protein.[32] A cat's gastrointestinal tract is adapted to meat eating, being much shorter than that of omnivores and having low levels of several of the digestive enzymes needed to digest carbohydrates.[83] These traits severely limit the cat's ability to digest and use plant-derived nutrients, as well as certain fatty acids.[83] Despite the cat's meat-oriented physiology, several vegetarian or vegan cat foods have been marketed that are supplemented with chemically synthesized taurine and other nutrients, in attempts to produce a complete diet. However, some of these products still fail to provide all the nutrients cats require,[84] and diets containing no animal products pose the risk of causing severe nutritional deficiencies.[85] However, veterinarians in the United States have expressed concern that many domestic cats are overfed.[86]
Cats do eat grass occasionally. A proposed explanation is that cats use grass as a source of folic acid. Another is that it is used to supply dietary fiber, helping the cat defecate more easily and expel parasites and other harmful material through feces and vomit.[87]
Cats are unusually dependent on a constant supply of the amino acid arginine, and a diet lacking arginine causes marked weight loss and can be rapidly fatal.[88] Arginine is an essential additive in cat food because cats have low levels of the enzymes aminotransferase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate which are responsible for the synthesis of ornithine and citrulline in the small intestine.[89] Citrulline would typically go on to the kidneys to make arginine, but because cats have a deficiency in the enzymes that make it, citrulline is not produced in adequate quantities to make arginine. Arginine is essential in the urea cycle in order to convert the toxic component ammonia into urea that can then be excreted in the urine. Because of its essential role, deficiency in arginine results in a build up of toxic ammonia and leads to hyperammonemia.[89] The symptoms of hyperammonemia include lethargy, vomiting, ataxia, hyperesthesia and can be serious enough to induce death and coma in a matter of days if a cat is being fed an arginine-free diet. The quick onset of these symptoms is due to the fact that diets devoid in arginine will typically still contain all of the other amino acids, which will continue to be catabolized by the body, producing mass amounts of ammonia that very quickly build up with no way of being excreted.
Another unusual feature is that the cat cannot produce taurine,[note 1] with a deficiency in this nutrient causing macular degeneration, wherein the cat's retina slowly breaks down, causing irreversible blindness.[32] This is due to the hepatic activity of cystinesulfinic acid decarboxylase being low in cats.[91] This limits the ability of cats to biosynthesize the taurine they need from its precursor, the amino acid cysteine, which ultimately results in inadequate taurine production needed for normal function.[91] Deficiencies in taurine result in compensated function of feline cardiovascular and reproductive systems.[91] These abnormalities can also be accompanied by developmental issues in the central nervous system along with degeneration of the retina.[91]
In order to produce the essential vitamin niacin for use in the cat, tryptophan is needed for conversion purposes. However, due to a competing pathway with acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), niacin can become deficient and require supplementation.[92] This process occurs when an overactive enzyme, picolinic acid carboxylase, converts the vitamin B6 precursor picolinic acid into the alternate compound acetyl-CoA, instead of converting quinolinate into nictotinic acid mononlucleotide (niacin).[93] Niacin is required in cats as it supports enzyme function. If niacin is deficient in the diet, anorexia, weight loss and an increase in body temperature can result.[94]
Preformed vitamin A is required in the cat for retinal and reproductive health. Vitamin A is considered to be a fat-soluble vitamin and is seen as essential in a cat's diet. Normally, the conversion of beta-carotenes into vitamin A occurs in the intestine (more specifically the mucosal layer) of species, however cats lack the ability to undergo this process.[92] Both the kidney and liver are contributors to the use of vitamin A in the body of the majority of species while the cats liver does not produce the enzyme Beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase which converts the beta-carotene into retinol (vitamin A).[95] To summarize: cats do not have high levels of this enzyme leading to the cleavage and oxidation of carotenoids not taking place.[93]
Vitamin D3 is a dietary requirement for cats as they lack the ability to synthesize vitamin D3 from sunlight.[96] Cats obtain high levels of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholestrol delta 7 reductase which causes immediate conversion of vitamin D3 from sunlight to 7-dehydrocholesterol.[97] This fat soluble vitamin is required in cats for bone formation through the promotion of calcium retention, along with nerve and muscle control through absorption of calcium and phosphorus.[97]
Cats, like all mammals, need to get linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid, from their diet. Most mammals can convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, as well as the omega 3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) through the activity of enzymes, but this process is very limited in cats.[92] The Δ6-desaturase enzyme eventually converts linoleic acid, which is in its salt form linoleate, to arachidonate (salt form of arachidonic acid) in the liver, but this enzyme has very little activity in cats.[92] This means that arachidonic acid is an essential fatty acid for cats as they lack the ability to create required amounts of linoleic acid. Deficiency of arachidonic acid in cats is related to problems in growth, can cause injury and inflammation to skin (e.g. around the mouth) decreased platelet aggregation, fatty liver, increase in birth defects of kittens whose queens were deficient during pregnancy, and reproductive failure in queens.[92] Arachidonic acid can also be metabolized to eicosanoids that create inflammatory responses which are needed to stimulate proper growth and repair mechanisms in the cat.[98]
Cat food § Nutrient chart provides a list of the many nutrients cats require as well as the use of the nutrients in the body and the effects of the deficiency.
Senses Main article: Cat senses
Reflection of camera flash from the tapetum lucidum Cats have excellent night vision and can see at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision.[66]:43 This is partly the result of cat eyes having a tapetum lucidum, which reflects any light that passes through the retina back into the eye, thereby increasing the eye's sensitivity to dim light.[99] Another adaptation to dim light is the large pupils of cats' eyes. Unlike some big cats, such as tigers, domestic cats have slit pupils.[100] These slit pupils can focus bright light without chromatic aberration, and are needed since the domestic cat's pupils are much larger, relative to their eyes, than the pupils of the big cats.[100] At low light levels, a cat's pupils will expand to cover most of the exposed surface of its eyes.[101] However, domestic cats have rather poor color vision and (like most nonprimate mammals) have only two types of cones, optimized for sensitivity to blue and yellowish green; they have limited ability to distinguish between red and green.[102] A 1993 paper reported a response to middle wavelengths from a system other than the rods which might be due to a third type of cone. However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true trichromatic vision.[103]
Cats have excellent hearing and can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies. They can hear higher-pitched sounds than either dogs or humans, detecting frequencies from 55 Hz to 79,000 Hz, a range of 10.5 octaves, while humans and dogs both have ranges of about 9 octaves.[104][105] Cats can hear ultrasound, which is important in hunting[106] because many species of rodents make ultrasonic calls.[107] However, they do not communicate using ultrasound like rodents do. Cats' hearing is also sensitive and among the best of any mammal,[104] being most acute in the range of 500 Hz to 32 kHz.[108] This sensitivity is further enhanced by the cat's large movable outer ears (their pinnae), which both amplify sounds and help detect the direction of a noise.[106]
Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed olfactory bulb and a large surface of olfactory mucosa, about 5.8 cm2 (0.90 in2) in area, which is about twice that of humans.[109] Cats are sensitive to pheromones such as 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol,[110] which they use to communicate through urine spraying and marking with scent glands.[111] Many cats also respond strongly to plants that contain nepetalactone, especially catnip, as they can detect that substance at less than one part per billion.[112] About 70–80% of cats are affected by nepetalactone.[113] This response is also produced by other plants, such as silver vine (Actinidia polygama) and the herb valerian; it may be caused by the smell of these plants mimicking a pheromone and stimulating cats' social or sexual behaviors.[114]
Cats have relatively few taste buds compared to humans (470 or so versus more than 9,000 on the human tongue).[115] Domestic and wild cats share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet taste buds from binding to sugary molecules, leaving them with no ability to taste sweetness.[116] Their taste buds instead respond to acids, amino acids like protein, and bitter tastes.[117] Cats and many other animals have a Jacobson's organ in their mouths that is used in the behavioral process of flehmening. It allows them to sense certain aromas in a way that humans cannot. Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 38 °C (100 °F) which is similar to that of a fresh kill and routinely rejecting food presented cold or refrigerated (which would signal to the cat that the "prey" item is long dead and therefore possibly toxic or decomposing).[115]
The whiskers of a cat are highly sensitive to touch. To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable whiskers (vibrissae) over their body, especially their faces. These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective blink reflexes to protect the eyes from damage.[66]:47
File:BIOASTRONAUTICS RESEARCH Gov.archives.arc.68700.ogv Comparison of cat righting reflexes in gravity versus zero gravity Most breeds of cat have a noted fondness for settling in high places, or perching. In the wild, a higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats may strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch, as does a leopard.[118] Another possible explanation is that height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its territory. During a fall from a high place, a cat can reflexively twist its body and right itself using its acute sense of balance and flexibility.[119] This is known as the cat righting reflex. An individual cat always rights itself in the same way, provided it has the time to do so, during a fall. The height required for this to occur is around 90 cm (3.0 ft). Cats without a tail (e.g. many specimens of the Manx and Cymric breeds) also have this ability, since a cat mostly relies on leg movement and conservation of angular momentum to set up for landing, and the tail is little used for this feat.[120] Their excellent sense of balance allows cats to move with great stability. A cat falling from heights of up to 3 meters can right itself and land on its paws.[121]
Health Main articles: Cat health and Aging in cats The average lifespan of pet cats has risen in recent years. In the early 1980s, it was about seven years,[122]:33[123] rising to 9.4 years in 1995[122]:33 and 15.1 years in 2018.[124] However, cats have been reported as surviving into their 30s,[125] with the oldest known cat, Creme Puff, dying at a verified age of 38.[126]
Spaying or neutering increases life expectancy: one study found neutered male cats live twice as long as intact males, while spayed female cats live 62% longer than intact females.[122]:35 Having a cat neutered confers health benefits, because castrated males cannot develop testicular cancer, spayed females cannot develop uterine or ovarian cancer, and both have a reduced risk of mammary cancer.[127]
Despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of neutered feral cats in managed colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats.[128]:45[129]:1358 [130][131][132][133]
Diseases Main article: Feline diseases A wide range of health problems may affect cats, including infectious diseases, parasites, injuries, and chronic disease. Vaccinations are available for many of these diseases, and domestic cats are regularly given treatments to eliminate parasites such as worms and fleas.[134]
Genetics Main article: Cat genetics The domesticated cat and its closest wild ancestor are both diploid organisms that possess 38 chromosomes[135] and roughly 20,000 genes.[136] About 250 heritable genetic disorders have been identified in cats, many similar to human inborn errors.[137] The high level of similarity among the metabolism of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using genetic tests that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats as animal models in the study of the human diseases.[138][139]
Behavior See also: Cat behavior and Cat intelligence A black-and-white cat on a fence A cat on a fence Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night.[140][141] The timing of cats' activity is quite flexible and varied, which means house cats may be more active in the morning and evening, as a response to greater human activity at these times.[142] Although they spend the majority of their time in the vicinity of their home, housecats can range many hundreds of meters from this central point, and are known to establish territories that vary considerably in size, in one study ranging from 7 to 28 hectares (17–69 acres).[141]
Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older. The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average. Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours. The term "cat nap" for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep (lightly) for a brief period. While asleep, cats experience short periods of rapid eye movement sleep often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are dreaming.[143]
Sociability
Social grooming Although wildcats are solitary, the social behavior of domestic cats is much more variable and ranges from widely dispersed individuals to feral cat colonies that gather around a food source, based on groups of co-operating females.[144][145] Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others.[34] Each cat in a colony holds a distinct territory, with sexually active males having the largest territories, which are about 10 times larger than those of female cats and may overlap with several females' territories.[111] These territories are marked by urine spraying, by rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation.[111] Between these territories are neutral areas where cats watch and greet one another without territorial conflicts. Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and growling, and if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks. Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or a pack mentality, and always hunt alone.[146]
Cat with an Alaskan Malamute dog However, some pet cats are poorly socialized. In particular, older cats may show aggressiveness towards newly arrived kittens, which may include biting and scratching; this type of behavior is known as feline asocial aggression.[147]
Though cats and dogs are often characterized as natural enemies, they can live together if correctly socialized.[148]
Life in proximity to humans and other domestic animals has led to a symbiotic social adaptation in cats, and cats may express great affection toward humans or other animals. Ethologically, the human keeper of a cat may function as a sort of surrogate for the cat's mother,[149] and adult housecats live their lives in a kind of extended kittenhood,[150] a form of behavioral neoteny. The high-pitched sounds housecats make to solicit food may mimic the cries of a hungry human infant, making them particularly hard for humans to ignore.[151]
Domestic cats' scent rubbing behavior towards humans or other cats is thought to be a feline means for social bonding.[152]
Communication Main article: Cat communication Domestic cats use many vocalizations for communication, including purring, trilling, hissing, growling/snarling, grunting, and several different forms of meowing.[7] (By contrast, feral cats are generally silent.)[153]:208 Their types of body language, including position of ears and tail, relaxation of the whole body, and kneading of the paws, are all indicators of mood. The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats;[154][155] for example, a raised tail acts as a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility. Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group's social hierarchy, with dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate animals.[155] Nose-to-nose touching is also a common greeting and may be followed by social grooming, which is solicited by one of the cats raising and tilting its head.[145]
Purring may have developed as an evolutionary advantage as a signalling mechanism of reassurance between mother cats and nursing kittens. Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed,[156][157] or eating. The mechanism by which cats purr is elusive. The cat has no unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the sound.[158] It was, until recent times, believed that only the cats of the Felis genus could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tiger, lion, jaguar, and leopard) also produce non-continuous sounds, called chuffs, similar to purring, but only when exhaling.[159]
Grooming
The hooked papillae on a cat's tongue act like a hairbrush to help clean and detangle fur. File:Housecat Grooming Itself.webm A tabby housecat uses its brush-like tongue to groom itself, licking its fur to straighten it. Cats are known for spending considerable amounts of time licking their coat to keep it clean.[160] The cat's tongue has backwards-facing spines about 500 μm long, which are called papillae. These contain keratin which makes them rigid[161] so the papillae act like a hairbrush. Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate hairballs of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming. These clumps of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long. Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through the gut, as well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush.[160]
Fighting Among domestic cats, males are more likely to fight than females.[162] Among feral cats, the most common reason for cat fighting is competition between two males to mate with a female. In such cases, most fights are won by the heavier male.[163] Another common reason for fighting in domestic cats is the difficulty of establishing territories within a small home.[162] Female cats also fight over territory or to defend their kittens. Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to sex hormones.[164]
An arched back, raised fur and an open-mouthed hiss can all be signs of aggression in a domestic cat. When cats become aggressive, they try to make themselves appear larger and more threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, turning sideways and hissing or spitting.[154] Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoid damage to the inner ear and potentially listen for any changes behind them while focused forward. They may also vocalize loudly and bare their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent. Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful slaps to the face and body with the forepaws as well as bites. Cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's belly with their powerful hind legs.[165]
Serious damage is rare, as the fights are usually short in duration, with the loser running away with little more than a few scratches to the face and ears. However, fights for mating rights are typically more severe and injuries may include deep puncture wounds and lacerations. Normally, serious injuries from fighting are limited to infections of scratches and bites, though these can occasionally kill cats if untreated. In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus.[166] Sexually active males are usually involved in many fights during their lives, and often have decidedly battered faces with obvious scars and cuts to their ears and nose.[167]
Hunting and feeding
A cat that is playing with a caught mouse. Cats play with their prey to weaken or exhaust them before making a kill.
A domestic cat with its prey Cats hunt small prey, primarily birds and rodents,[168] and are often used as a form of pest control.[169][170] Domestic cats are a major predator of wildlife in the United States, killing an estimated 1.4 to 3.7 billion birds and 6.9 to 20.7 billion mammals annually.[171][172] The bulk of predation in the United States is done by 80 million feral and stray cats. Effective measures to reduce this population are elusive, meeting opposition from cat enthusiasts.[171][172] In the case of free-ranging pets, equipping cats with bells and not letting them out at night will reduce wildlife predation.[168]
Free-fed feral cats and house cats tend to consume many small meals in a single day, although the frequency and size of meals varies between individuals.[146] Cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking prey actively, or waiting in ambush until an animal comes close enough to be captured.[173] Although it is not certain, the strategy used may depend on the prey species in the area, with cats waiting in ambush outside burrows, but tending to actively stalk birds.[174]:153
Perhaps the best known element of cats' hunting behavior, which is commonly misunderstood and often appalls cat owners because it looks like torture, is that cats often appear to "play" with prey by releasing it after capture. This behavior is due to an instinctive imperative to ensure that the prey is weak enough to be killed without endangering the cat.[175] This behavior is referred to in the idiom "cat-and-mouse game" or simply "cat and mouse".
Another poorly understood element of cat hunting behavior is the presentation of prey to human guardians. Ethologist Paul Leyhausen proposed that cats adopt humans into their social group and share excess kill with others in the group according to the dominance hierarchy, in which humans are reacted to as if they are at, or near, the top.[176] Anthropologist and zoologist Desmond Morris, in his 1986 book Catwatching, suggests, when cats bring home mice or birds, they are attempting to teach their human to hunt, or trying to help their human as if feeding "an elderly cat, or an inept kitten".[177][178] Morris's hypothesis is inconsistent with the fact that male cats also bring home prey, despite males having negligible involvement with raising kittens.[174]:153
Domestic cats select food based on its temperature, smell and texture; they dislike chilled foods and respond most strongly to moist foods rich in amino acids, which are similar to meat.[85][146] Cats may reject novel flavors (a response termed neophobia) and learn quickly to avoid foods that have tasted unpleasant in the past.[146] They may also avoid sugary foods and milk. Most adult cats are lactose intolerant; the sugars in milk are not easily digested and may cause soft stools or diarrhea.[146][179] They can also develop odd eating habits. Some cats like to eat or chew on other things, most commonly wool, but also plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or even coal. This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten.[180][181]
Though cats usually prey on animals less than half their size, a feral cat in Australia has been photographed killing an adult pademelon of around the cat's weight at 4 kg (8.8 lb).[182]
Since cats lack sufficient lips to create suction,[183] they use a lapping method with the tongue to draw liquid upwards into their mouths. Lapping at a rate of four times a second, the cat touches the smooth tip of its tongue to the surface of the water, and quickly retracts it like a corkscrew, drawing water upwards.[184]
Running A veterinarian and columnist for Mercola Healthy Pets, Karen Shaw Becker, has compiled a list of the fastest and most athletic cat breeds. First is the Egyptian Mau, which can clock up to 30 miles per hour, faster than any other domestic cat breed in the world.[185][unreliable source] In descending order, Becker lists the other swift domestic cats: the Abyssinian cat, the Somali cat, the Bengal cat, the Savannah cat, the Manx cat ("He can jump and accelerate through the house like there's no tomorrow. Watch for his sharp turns and quick stops – you'll think he's a mini sports car in the shape of a cat."), the Siamese cat, the Ocicat, and the Oriental Shorthair.
The average house cat can outspeed the average house dog (excluding those born to run and race, such as the greyhound and the cheetah), but they excel at sprinting, not at long-distance running.
Play Main article: Cat play and toys File:Play fight between cats.webmhd.webm Play fight between kittens, age 14 weeks Domestic cats, especially young kittens, are known for their love of play. This behavior mimics hunting and is important in helping kittens learn to stalk, capture, and kill prey.[186] Cats also engage in play fighting, with each other and with humans. This behavior may be a way for cats to practice the skills needed for real combat, and might also reduce any fear they associate with launching attacks on other animals.[187]
Owing to the close similarity between play and hunting, cats prefer to play with objects that resemble prey, such as small furry toys that move rapidly, but rapidly lose interest (they become habituated) in a toy they have played with before.[188] Cats also tend to play with toys more when they are hungry.[189] String is often used as a toy, but if it is eaten, it can become caught at the base of the cat's tongue and then move into the intestines, a medical emergency which can cause serious illness, even death.[190] Owing to the risks posed by cats eating string, it is sometimes replaced with a laser pointer's dot, which cats may chase.[191]
Reproduction See also: Kitten
When cats mate, the tomcat (male) bites the scruff of the female's neck as she assumes a position conducive to mating known as lordosis behavior.
Radiography of a pregnant cat (about one month and a half) Female cats are seasonally polyestrous, which means they may have many periods of heat over the course of a year, the season beginning in spring and ending in late autumn. Heat periods occur about every two weeks and last about 4 to 7 days.[192] Multiple males will be attracted to a female in heat. The males will fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate. At first, the female rejects the male, but eventually the female allows the male to mate. The female utters a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her because a male cat's penis has a band of about 120–150 backwards-pointing penile spines, which are about 1 mm long; upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which acts to induce ovulation. This act also occurs to clear the vagina of other sperm in the context of a second (or more) mating, thus giving the later males a larger chance of conception.[193]
After mating, the female washes her vulva thoroughly. If a male attempts to mate with her at this point, the female will attack him. After about 20 to 30 minutes, once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat.[192]
Because ovulation is not always triggered by a single mating, females may not be impregnated by the first male with which they mate.[194] Furthermore, cats are superfecund; that is, a female may mate with more than one male when she is in heat, with the result that different kittens in a litter may have different fathers.[192]
A newborn kitten At 124 hours after conception, the morula forms. At 148 hours, early blastocysts form. At 10–12 days, implantation occurs.[195][196]
The gestation period for cats is between 64 and 67 days, with an average of 66 days.[197] The size of a litter usually is three to five kittens, with the first litter usually smaller than subsequent litters. Kittens are weaned between six and seven weeks old, and cats normally reach sexual maturity at 5–10 months (females) and to 5–7 months (males), although this can vary depending on breed.[192] Females can have two to three litters per year, so may produce up to 150 kittens in their breeding span of around ten years.[192]
Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks of age,[198] when they are ready to leave their mother. They can be surgically sterilized (spayed or castrated) as early as 7 weeks to limit unwanted reproduction.[199] This surgery also prevents undesirable sex-related behavior, such as aggression, territory marking (spraying urine) in males and yowling (calling) in females. Traditionally, this surgery was performed at around six to nine months of age, but it is increasingly being performed before puberty, at about three to six months.[200] In the US, about 80% of household cats are neutered.[201]
Ecology Habitats
A cat in snowy weather Cats are a cosmopolitan species and are found across much of the world.[39] Geneticist Stephen James O'Brien, of the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, Maryland, remarked on how successful cats have been in evolutionary terms: "Cats are one of evolution's most charismatic creatures. They can live on the highest mountains and in the hottest deserts."[202] They are extremely adaptable and are now present on all continents except Antarctica, and on 118 of the 131 main groups of islands—even on isolated islands such as the Kerguelen Islands.[203][204]
Feral cats can live in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands.[205] Their habitats even include small oceanic islands with no human inhabitants.[206] Further, the close relatives of domestic cats, the African wildcat (Felis silvestris lybica) and the Arabian sand cat (Felis margarita) both inhabit desert environments,[29] and domestic cats still show similar adaptations and behaviors.[32] The cat's ability to thrive in almost any terrestrial habitat has led to its designation as one of the world's worst invasive species.[207]
As domestic cats are little altered from wildcats, they can readily interbreed. This hybridization poses a danger to the genetic distinctiveness of some wildcat populations, particularly in Scotland and Hungary and possibly also the Iberian Peninsula.[42]
Feral cats Main article: Feral cat
Feral farm cat Feral cats are domestic cats that were born in or have reverted to a wild state. They are unfamiliar with and wary of humans and roam freely in urban and rural areas.[9] The numbers of feral cats is not known, but estimates of the US feral population range from 25 to 60 million.[9] Feral cats may live alone, but most are found in large colonies, which occupy a specific territory and are usually associated with a source of food.[208] Famous feral cat colonies are found in Rome around the Colosseum and Forum Romanum, with cats at some of these sites being fed and given medical attention by volunteers.[209]
Public attitudes towards feral cats vary widely, ranging from seeing them as free-ranging pets, to regarding them as vermin.[210] One common approach to reducing the feral cat population is termed 'trap-neuter-return', where the cats are trapped, neutered, immunized against diseases such as rabies and the feline Panleukopenia and Leukemia viruses, and then released.[211] Before releasing them back into their feral colonies, the attending veterinarian often nips the tip off one ear to mark it as neutered and inoculated, since these cats may be trapped again. Volunteers continue to feed and give care to these cats throughout their lives. Given this support, their lifespans are increased, and behavior and nuisance problems caused by competition for food are reduced.[208]
Impact on prey species
Carrying half of a rabbit To date, little scientific data is available to assess the impact of cat predation on prey populations outside of agricultural situations. Even well-fed domestic cats may hunt and kill, mainly catching small mammals, but also birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates.[168][212] Hunting by domestic cats may be contributing to the decline in the numbers of birds in urban areas, although the importance of this effect remains controversial.[213] In the wild, the introduction of feral cats during human settlement can threaten native species with extinction.[206] In many cases, controlling or eliminating the populations of non-native cats can produce a rapid recovery in native animals.[214] However, the ecological role of introduced cats can be more complicated. For example, cats can control the numbers of rats, which also prey on birds' eggs and young, so a cat population can protect an endangered bird species by suppressing mesopredators.[215]
In isolated landmasses, such as Australasia, there are often no other native, medium-sized quadrupedal predators (including other feline species); this tends to exacerbate the impact of feral cats on small native animals.[216] Native species such as the New Zealand kakapo and the Australian bettong, for example, tend to be more ecologically vulnerable and behaviorally "naive", when faced with predation by cats.[217] Feral cats have had a major impact on these native species and have played a leading role in the endangerment and extinction of many animals.[218]
Even in places with ancient and numerous cat populations, such as Western Europe, cats appear to be growing in number and independently of their environments' carrying capacity (such as the numbers of prey available).[219][220] This may be explained, at least in part, by an abundance of food, from sources including feeding by pet owners and scavenging. For instance, research in Britain suggests that a high proportion of cats hunt only "recreationally"[220], and in South Sweden, where research in 1982 found that the population density of cats was as high as 2,000 per square kilometre (5,200/sq mi).[219]
In agricultural settings, cats can be effective at keeping mouse and rat populations low, but only if rodent harborage locations are kept under control.[221][222] While cats are effective at preventing rodent population explosions, they are not effective for eliminating pre-existing severe infestations.[223]
Impact on birds
A black cat eating a house sparrow The domestic cat is a significant predator of birds. UK assessments indicate they may be accountable for an estimated 64.8 million bird deaths each year.[168] A 2012 study suggests feral cats may kill several billion birds each year in the United States.[224] Certain species appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of house sparrow mortality is linked to the domestic cat.[225] In the recovery of ringed robins (Erithacus rubecula) and dunnocks (Prunella modularis), 31% of deaths were a result of cat predation.[226] In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as coyotes which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as opossums and raccoons on bird numbers and variety.[227] The proposal that cat populations will increase when the numbers of these top predators decline is called the mesopredator release hypothesis.
On islands, birds can contribute as much as 60% of a cat's diet.[228] In nearly all cases, however, the cat cannot be identified as the sole cause for reducing the numbers of island birds, and in some instances, eradication of cats has caused a 'mesopredator release' effect;[229] where the suppression of top carnivores creates an abundance of smaller predators that cause a severe decline in their shared prey. Domestic cats are, however, known to be a contributing factor to the decline of many species, a factor that has ultimately led, in some cases, to extinction. The South Island piopio, Chatham rail,[226] the New Zealand merganser,[230] and the common diving petrel[231] are a few from a long list, with the most extreme case being the flightless Lyall's wren, which was driven to extinction only a few years after its discovery.[232][233]
Some of the same factors that have promoted adaptive radiation of island avifauna over evolutionary time appear to promote vulnerability to non-native species in modern time. The susceptibility of many island birds is undoubtedly due to evolution in the absence of mainland predators, competitors, diseases, and parasites, in addition to lower reproductive rates and extended incubation periods.[234] The loss of flight, or reduced flying ability is also characteristic of many island endemics.[235] These biological aspects have increased vulnerability to extinction in the presence of introduced species, such as the domestic cat.[236] Equally, behavioral traits exhibited by island species, such as "predatory naivety"[237] and ground-nesting,[234] have also contributed to their susceptibility.
Interaction with humans Main article: Human interaction with cats
Cats and people Cats are common pets throughout the world, and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million.[13] Although cat guardianship has commonly been associated with women,[238] a 2007 Gallup poll reported that men and women in the United States of America were equally likely to own a cat.[239]
As well as being kept as pets, cats are also used in the international fur[240] and leather industries for making coats, hats, blankets, and stuffed toys;[241] and shoes, gloves, and musical instruments respectively[242] (about 24 cats are needed to make a cat-fur coat).[243] This use has been outlawed in the United States, Australia, and the European Union.[244] Cat pelts have been used for superstitious purposes as part of the practise of witchcraft,[245] and are still made into blankets in Switzerland as folk remedies believed to help rheumatism.[246] In the Western intellectual tradition, the idea of cats as everyday objects have served to illustrate problems of quantum mechanics in the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment.
A few attempts to build a cat census have been made over the years, both through associations or national and international organizations (such as the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies's one[247]) and over the Internet,[248][249] but such a task does not seem simple to achieve. General estimates for the global population of domestic cats range widely from anywhere between 200 million to 600 million.[250][251][252][253][254][255]
Cat show Main article: Cat show A cat show is a judged event where the owners of cats compete to win titles in various cat registering organizations by entering their cats to be judged after a breed standard.[256][257] Both pedigreed and companion (or moggy) cats are admissible, although the rules differ from organization to organization. Cats are compared to a breed standard,[258] and the owners of those judged to be closest to it are awarded a prize. Moggies are judged based on their temperament. Often, at the end of the year, all of the points accrued at various shows are added up and more national and regional titles are awarded.
Cat café Main article: Cat café A cat café is a theme café whose attraction is cats that can be watched and played with.[259] Patrons pay a cover fee, generally hourly and thus cat cafés can be seen as a form of supervised indoor pet rental.
Ailurophobia Main article: Ailurophobia Ailurophobia is a human phobia of cats; however, the term is often associated with humans that have a hatred of cats.[260]
Cat bites Main article: Cat bite Cats may bite humans when provoked, during play or when aggressive. Complications from cat bites can develop.[261] A cat bite differs from the bites of other pets. This is because the teeth of a cat are sharp and pointed causing deep punctures. Skin usually closes rapidly over the bite and traps microorganisms that cause infection.[262][261]
Infections transmitted from cats to humans Main article: Feline zoonosis Cats can be infected or infested with viruses, bacteria, fungus, protozoans, arthropods or worms that can transmit diseases to humans.[263] In some cases, the cat exhibits no symptoms of the disease,[264] However, the same disease can then become evident in a human. The likelihood that a person will become diseased depends on the age and immune status of the person. Humans who have cats living in their home or in close association are more likely to become infected, however, those who do not keep cats as pets might also acquire infections from cat feces and parasites exiting the cat's body.[263][265] Some of the infections of most concern include salmonella, cat scratch disease and toxoplasmosis.[264]
History and mythology Main articles: Cultural depictions of cats and Cats in ancient Egypt
The ancient Egyptians mummified dead cats out of respect in the same way that they mummified people.[266]
Ancient Roman mosaic of a cat killing a partridge from the House of the Faun in Pompeii
A 19th-century drawing of a tabby cat Traditionally, historians tended to think ancient Egypt was the site of cat domestication, owing to the clear depictions of house cats in Egyptian paintings about 3,600 years old.[29] However, in 2004, a Neolithic grave excavated in Shillourokambos, Cyprus, contained the skeletons, laid close to one another, of both a human and a cat. The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, pushing back the earliest known feline–human association significantly.[16][267][268] The cat specimen is large and closely resembles the African wildcat, rather than present-day domestic cats. This discovery, combined with genetic studies, suggests cats were probably domesticated in the Middle East, in the Fertile Crescent around the time of the development of agriculture, and then were brought to Cyprus and Egypt.[15][20] Direct evidence for the domestication of cats 5,300 years ago in Quanhucun, China has been published by archaeologists and paleontologists from the University of Washington and Chinese Academy of Sciences. The cats are believed to have been attracted to the village by rodents, which in turn were attracted by grain cultivated and stored by humans.[269]
In ancient Egypt, cats were sacred animals, with the goddess Bastet often depicted in cat form, sometimes taking on the war-like aspect of a lioness.[270]:220 Killing a cat was absolutely forbidden[266] and the Greek historian Herodotus reports that, whenever a household cat died, the entire family would mourn and shave their eyebrows.[266] Families took their dead cats to the sacred city of Bubastis,[266] where they were embalmed and buried in sacred repositories.[266] Domestic cats were probably first introduced to Greece and southern Italy in the fifth century BC by the Phoenicians.[271] The earliest unmistakable evidence of the Greeks having domestic cats comes from two coins from Magna Graecia dating to the mid-fifth century BC showing Iokastos and Phalanthos, the legendary founders of Rhegion and Taras respectively, playing with their pet cats.[272]:57–58[273]
Housecats seem to have been extremely rare among the ancient Greeks and Romans;[273] Herodotus expressed astonishment at the domestic cats in Egypt, because he had only ever seen wildcats.[273] Even during later times, weasels were far more commonly kept as pets[273] and weasels, not cats, were seen as the ideal rodent-killers.[273] The usual ancient Greek word for "cat" was ailouros, meaning "thing with the waving tail",[272]:57[273] but this word could also be applied to any of the "various long-tailed carnivores kept for catching mice".[273] Cats are rarely mentioned in ancient Greek literature,[273] but Aristotle does remark in his History of Animals that "female cats are naturally lecherous."[272]:74[273] The Greeks later syncretized their own goddess Artemis with the Egyptian goddess Bastet, adopting Bastet's associations with cats and ascribing them to Artemis.[272]:77–79 In Ovid's Metamorphoses, when the gods flee to Egypt and take animal forms, the goddess Diana (the Roman equivalent of Artemis) turns into a cat.[272]:79 Cats eventually displaced ferrets as the pest control of choice because they were more pleasant to have around the house and were more enthusiastic hunters of mice.[274] During the Middle Ages, many of Artemis's associations with cats were grafted onto the Virgin Mary.[274] Cats are often shown in icons of Annunciation and of the Holy Family[274] and, according to Italian folklore, on the same night that Mary gave birth to Jesus, a virgin cat in Bethlehem gave birth to a kitten.[274] Domestic cats were spread throughout much of the rest of the world during the Age of Discovery, as ships' cats were carried on sailing ships to control shipboard rodents and as good-luck charms.[270]:223
Several ancient religions believed cats are exalted souls, companions or guides for humans, that are all-knowing but mute so they cannot influence decisions made by humans. In Japan, the maneki neko cat is a symbol of good fortune.[275] In Norse mythology, Freyja, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, is depicted as riding a chariot drawn by cats.[276] In Jewish legend, the first cat was living in the house of the first man Adam as a pet that got rid of mice.[277] The cat was once partnering with the first dog before the latter broke an oath they had made which resulted in enmity between the descendants of these two animals.[277] It is also written that neither cats nor foxes are represented in the water, while every other animal has an incarnation species in the water.[277] Although no species are sacred in Islam, cats are revered by Muslims. Some Western writers have stated Muhammad had a favorite cat, Muezza.[278] He is reported to have loved cats so much, "he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it".[279] The story has no origin in early Muslim writers, and seems to confuse a story of a later Sufi saint, Ahmed ar-Rifa'i, centuries after Muhammad.[280] One of the companions of Muhammad was known as "Abu Hurayrah" (Father of the Kitten), in reference to his documented affection to cats.[281]
Superstitions and cat burning
Some cultures are superstitious about black cats, ascribing either good or bad luck to them. Many cultures have negative superstitions about cats. An example would be the belief that a black cat "crossing one's path" leads to bad luck, or that cats are witches' familiars used to augment a witch's powers and skills. The killing of cats in Medieval Ypres, Belgium, is commemorated in the innocuous present-day Kattenstoet (cat parade).[282] In medieval France, cats would be burnt alive as a form of entertainment. According to Norman Davies, the assembled people "shrieked with laughter as the animals, howling with pain, were singed, roasted, and finally carbonized".[283]
"It was the custom to burn a basket, barrel, or sack full of live cats, which was hung from a tall mast in the midst of the bonfire; sometimes a fox was burned. The people collected the embers and ashes of the fire and took them home, believing that they brought good luck. The French kings often witnessed these spectacles and even lit the bonfire with their own hands. In 1648 Louis XIV, crowned with a wreath of roses and carrying a bunch of roses in his hand, kindled the fire, danced at it and partook of the banquet afterwards in the town hall. But this was the last occasion when a monarch presided at the midsummer bonfire in Paris. At Metz midsummer fires were lighted with great pomp on the esplanade, and a dozen cats, enclosed in wicker cages, were burned alive in them, to the amusement of the people. Similarly at Gap, in the department of the Hautes-Alpes, cats used to be roasted over the midsummer bonfire."[284]
According to a myth in many cultures, cats have multiple lives. In many countries, they are believed to have nine lives, but in Italy, Germany, Greece, Brazil and some Spanish-speaking regions, they are said to have seven lives,[285][286] while in Turkish and Arabic traditions, the number of lives is six.[287] The myth is attributed to the natural suppleness and swiftness cats exhibit to escape life-threatening situations. Also lending credence to this myth is the fact that falling cats often land on their feet, using an instinctive righting reflex to twist their bodies around. Nonetheless, cats can still be injured or killed by a high fall.[288]
See also
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Is Andy Cohen Or Anderson Cooper More Kinky In Bed?  WWHL After Show: John Oliver On Nancy Pelosi’s ‘Shady’ Clap  RHONY  WWHL Forever Band & Eveline Cannoot: Dag vreemde man Anderson Cooper Welcomes Newborn Baby Boy Celebrity Family Feud Vol. 1 - YouTube Anderson Cooper and Andy Cohen Met on a Failed Blind Date DR. VICTOR LOPEZ WINS RUGBY 7s INJURY PREVENTION AWARD Anderson Cooper tries a schizophrenia simulator - YouTube Anderson Cooper schools Lara Trump after tone-deaf Germany ...

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